Upper Body

Anatomy Checklist:


– Cylinder: neck from first rib under pit of neck, cylinder modified by adam’s apple in front, sterno-mast. muscle in front and side, trapezius and spine in back

– Neck moves with head

– Sternomastoid muscle runs from ear to clavicle head, forms v-shape

– Trapezius in back (banana shape)

– Pit between trapezius and sternomastoid

– Adam’s apple (thyroid cartilage) prominent in males, women’s neck more rounded

– Triangle of neck formed by: 1.Jaw line; 2. Sternomastoid; 3. Hyoid bone

– Moveable centre line from chin to pit of neck

– Base skull in line with base nose

– c7 (seventh cervical vertebrae) prominent, first rib below

– Spine, centre line

– Clavicles from sternum to bump of acromium process at spine of scapula

– Rib cage flattened egg shape with small end at top

– Sternum, flat bone half way rib cage

– Tenth rib prominent

– Rib cage plane breaks, front and back

Upper torso

 – Spine has 24 vertebrae: 5 lumber (between ribs and pelvis, largest, flexible; students often omit these!) 12 thoracic (gives rise to ribs, least flexible) 7 cervical (most flexible, pedestal for skull)

– Note: atlas (cerv.1) and vertical prominence (crrv.7), important landmark. Spine shows in mid region

– Thorax (rib cage) protects chest cavity, anchor for muscles

– Ribs wider than deep, man is only animal that can lie on his back without rolling over

– Plane break where rib bone meets cartilage

– Thoracic arch prominent, may reach 90 degrees

– Sternum thrusts down and out

Eighth rib widest

Breates in middle third rib cage

– Scapula: triangular shape, spine of scapula prominent, parallels sternum, gives socket for humerus

– Scapula joins clavicle (acromium process), forms moveable shoulder girdle, glides over ribs

– Scapula lags behind humerus elevation till arm rises above the horizontal then quickly catches up

– Clavicle: only bony connection between arm and trunk, last bone to obtain full growth, note hollows above and below middle clavicle


 – Humerus: head ball and socket joint, under acromium process

– Humerus approx. two sternum/scapula lengths

– Connects with ulna (hinge joint) and radius at elbow

– Elbow level with twelfth rib

– Flexed elbow: note three bumps

– Lower arm shorter than upper

– Ulna at elbow like claw, grasps humerus, important landmark

– Ulna bump at little finger side, important landmark

– Ulna superficial entire length separates muscle groups

– Radius: slender at elbow, at wrist large to join with carpals

– Suppination, both bones parallel with thumb facing away from body, palm up, slender upper forearm

– Pronation, radius rotates, includes shoulder

– Upper forearm rounded, at wrist end block like


 – Wrist consists of 8 small bones called carpals, conceive as quarter of apple, skin side touching radial end

– Metacarpals lie fanwise in palm, except thumb radiate from point at radial end

– Third knuckle halfway between finger tip and radial end

– Look for row of knuckles

– Wrist changes shape, sometimes round or flat

– Fingers consist of 14 phalanges, thumb two phalanges

– Each finger 3 phalanges: 1. Proximal (rings worn); 2. Median (wrap on doors); and 3. Distal (fingernails). Phalanges 1 and 2 equal 3 in length

– Third finger longest

– Thumb joint on same line with knuckles

– Palm longer than back hand

– Palm like shallow bowl with square sides

– Back of hand: bony and tendinous

– Hand mainly bones with two muscles at thumb and little finger side

– Note: lines of palm

– Back of hand: plane break along metacarpal 2

 Lower torso

 – Spine joins sacrum at ninety degrees

– Sacrum: triangular shape, holy bone, bounded above by two dimples (sacral dimples) and cleft below (coccyx) (end of buttock split)

– Coccyx on line with top of great trochanter and symphisis pubis bone, which is halfway height point