Skull

Anatomy Checklist:

Skull

 – Cranium: egg shape

– Orbital brow like stretched “m”

– Glabella: depression centre brow

– Brow bolder in males

– Occipital bone (back of head) protrudes, centre line to atlas

– Temporal area: slender zygomatic arch, note ear hole and mastoid process

– Face hangs like mask

– Prominent cheek bones, creates balcony above lower jaw

– Nasal bone inverted heart shape, creates slanting roof

– Maxillae: upper jaw

– Mandibula: lower jaw, lower teeth take root

– Note: small bumps either side chin midline

– Base skull level with mid ear

 Eye

– Corners of eye, outer corner sits higher and further back, inner corner with pink island (caruncula) separated from white by pink slip

– Eyeball in eye socket

– Proportion of coloured to white

– Pupil, black spot centre cornea, dilates

– Cornea is a circle on sphere

– Dark rim around cornea

– Give eyelids thickness: top lid with dark down plane, lower lid with light up plane, top lid moves and sits further in front

– Light patch between inner corner and dark accent of eye socket

– Don’t underestimate space between eye and nose

– Don’t underestimate sausage of eye

– Measure eyebrows and highpoint where tone changes

Mouth

– Philtrum: shallow plane breaks, does not join top lip

– Centre line through philtrum for nose–mouth alignment

– Check corners, show furrows

– Top lip down plane, sharp centre line

– Emphasize line between lips

– Bottom lip: egg shapes either side centre line, plane breaks on side

– Check down plane between bottom lip and chin

– Chin is embedded egg shape

– Light margin around lips

Nose

– Four planes, two side planes, front and down plane with nostrils

– Valley highlight where nose protrudes from brow

– Break where bone meets cartilage

– Tip of nose larger, look for dividing line with protruding points

– Nasal wings embedded ball shapes which wrap around nostrils

– Furrow between wings and cheeks

Ear

– Space between ear and sidelever

– Space between ear and hairline

– Check angle ear (follows jaw line)

– Don’t place ear too close to face

– Helix: curved outer rim

– Anti-helix: inner rim forms a y-shape

– Concha: deep ear cavity

– Tragus: small lump in front of concha, hairs grow here

– Anti-tragus: small lump opposite tragus

– Lobe: soft, oval

General Head

– Big shape first always, then subdivide into next largest shapes (this is the most important principle in drawing and painting)

– Large plane breaks are: 1. Temporal line to chin (forms triangle of face, separates front and side of head, cheek is embedded egg shape on this line; 2. Hair line; 3. Triangle of neck.

– Centre line, three types: 1. Straight, pencil glued to nose, gives perpendicular lines of features 2. Curved; 3. Contour lines.

– Eyes are halfway point on skull

– Head has three equal divisions: 1. Hairline and brow; 2. Brow to nose base; 3. Base nose to base chin

– Ear on same line with eyes and base nose

Facial hair 

 – 1. Moustache; 2. Goatee; 3. Centre chin; 4. Cheek; 5. Sideburns; 6. Neck