Lower body

Anatomy Checklist:


 – Height approx. skull length, separates torso from legs (liguinal ligament)

– Note: pelvic points and symphysis pubis form a triangle

– Iliac crest visible, stretches from pelvic points to sacral dimples

– Men widest at great trochanter, women just below due to fatty deposits

– Women have broader hips, rounder iliac crests, wider and shorter sacrums

– Pelvic point on supporting leg always higher

– Pelvic girdle moves as a whole

– Moveable centre line, pit of neck to symphysis pubis

 Upper leg

– Femur: largest bone, over twice skull length, slants inwards to knee, visible at hip and knee, condyles at knee are smooth, large swellings that articulate with tibia (hinge joint)


 – Largest joint, think of two large fists facing each other

– Patella (same size as thumb and index finger joined) is sesamoid bone (bone suspended in tendon), articulates with smooth, indented surface of femur, connected to turberosity of tibia (kneeling point) with tendon of quadriceps (which gives flat area above knee)

– Infrapatella fat bulges between tendon and joint

– Flexion-tibia pulls patella down

– Note: long triangle between patella and tibia turberosity of tibia (kneeling point)

– Bottom patella on line with knee joint

– Knee shape: low inside, high outside; narrow front, wide behind; wider in females


 – Prominent at knee, along the shaft and inner ankle

– Triangular cross-section


 – Fibular head seen at the end of outer hamstring of knee (three quarters from front)

– Mostly hidden (like radius), seen at knee and outer ankle


 – Equals approx. one head length

– 7 tarsal bones form tarsal arch, the calcaneus forms the heel

– two systems to describe foot shape: 1. oblique riding system, from ankles to big toe; 2. horizontal support system, from heel to little toe

– Foot (talus) forms hinge joint with inner ankle (higher, forward) and outer ankle (lower, back), ankle sits like saddle

– Metatarsals converge towards heel

– Big toe: metatarsal shortest

– Metatarsal head in ball of foot, heads of 1 and 5 prominent

– Metatarsals 1-4 climb up to respective tarsals, little toe horizontal

– Foot’s longitudinal and horizontal arches serve as springs and shock absorbers

– Like hand bony on top, thick skinned, padded sole

– Big toe (#1) turns to watch the other toes, #2 longest

– Toes have 3 phalanges, except big toe

– Toes: moveable part approx. one quarter foot length (compare hand)

– Note peak on big toe side (turbicle of navicular)

– Jamming of toes, from shoes, compresses toes in, makes metatarsal head of big toe protrude

– Note crease in shoes, at root of toes due to walking


 – Broadest at metatarsal heads

– Narrowest at heel

– Inner part arch doesn’t touch ground

– Divides in thirds: heel, inner arch, toes and pads

– Note: contours and flexion folds, these break at longitudinal furrow (through centre heel to toes)

– Draw footprints, feet often seen as footprints in perspective